When is a puppy not a puppy?


During the period in the womb, fetal development is affected by several factors. These are related to the mother’s experiences whilst pregnant. Nutrition of the mother plays a big factor as does her emotional state. Heightened stress and fearful experiences can create emotionally unstable puppies.

Hormones have a part to play too. Testosterone is responsible for masculinizing the male brain at this time. For female puppy, the position in the womb and where they are in relation to male puppies will increase their exposure to testosterone, causing them to take on some male-like tendencies such as leg lifting in adulthood.

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